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Genetics & Biotechnology

Genetics & Biotechnology

 Genetic engineering
Direct Manipulation of an organism's genes using biotechnology
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GENETICS LERNZETTEL
Helps to prevent / cure il

Genetics & Biotechnology

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Marie

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Pros und Cons von Genetic Engineering, Biotechnology in agriculture, cloning, designer babies

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Genetic engineering Direct Manipulation of an organism's genes using biotechnology Pro's ● ● GENETICS LERNZETTEL Helps to prevent / cure illnesses Can build a new generation with smarter, stronger and better looking humans Potential to live longer More an new foods Con's ● Eredication of hereditary diseases Life can be saved with organ donors Adaption of plants to climate change Saving extinct species Healthy children Intensified agriculture Health and environmental risks Less individuality ● • Creation of biological weapons Reduction of biodiversity Against natural balance May lead to genetic effects Uncertain side effects Moral problems: human rights Designer babies Irreversible changes in nature Cloning -> creation of genetically identical copies of living matters Therapeutic cloning: The nucleus of a cell is inserted into a fertilized egg whose nucleus has bee removed -> therapy for diseases Reproductive Cloning -> is uses to produce identical twins of animals through genetic manipulation ->researchers remove a cell from an animal that they wish to copy. Then they transfer the Dna of the donor animal cell into an egg cell, that has had its own Dna-containing nucleus removed. Biotechnology in agriculture Genetic engineering tries to breed plants that have some positive characteristics, for example that they should grow under unfavourable conditions, or become more resistant to diseases or pests, or that the plants should produce new ingredients. Pro ● Population and it's demands grows -> need more food More efficient farming Less dependance on pesticides New ingredients ● Higher yield More nutritional value Contra uncontrolled spread, could...

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displace other plants • Impact on humans and animals is uncertain Risk of allergy, other diseases Costs a lot -> investment by companies that can take advantage of poor farmers Violates natural boundaries of reproduction by crossing genes between unrelated specie that would never crossbreed naturally Monocultures lead to construction of natural biodiversity Pro und Contra (in Texten) Pro Development of new medicines and therapies Potential to combat serious diseases, including hereditary diseases. Vaccines, once laboriously produced in chicken embryos, can now in many cases already be produced with biotechnology Better environmental compatibility of production processes Microorganisms work energy-efficiently and cost-effectively, in the smallest possible space, and generally do not produce any problematic waste Targeted plant breeding Genetic engineering methods can be used to adapt crop varieties more effectively and more quickly to the wishes of the market. Contra Resistance development Seed producers do not deny that both weeds and insect pests are developing resistance to genetic modifications of crops. They react to this by developing new GM varieties and new pesticides - against which the weeds and insects in turn develop resistance. In this way, resistances can accumulate in wild organisms, "super weeds" and "super pests" emerge, which also cause problems for conventionally working farmers and gardeners. Dependence on seed monopolists GM seeds enjoy patent protection for many years. Farmers - even in developing countries - have to buy the high-tech seed, including the spraying agent, every year. Once weeds and pests have adapted, the next new development must be purchased. Fazit The benefits of genetic engineering in medicine and biotechnology are obvious: major advances can be expected here that can improve people's lives in ways that would not be possible without genetic engineering. There is hardly any danger from the GMOs used, as long as they do not enter the environment. Green genetic engineering and other releases, however, are interventions in natural ecosystems. No sooner is one problem eliminated than two new ones arise. While this is an inexhaustible goldmine for seed producers, it cannot pass for an answer to the question of feeding a growing world population. Solving such global challenges is neither the task nor the goal of profit-oriented business enterprises. What is needed above all for sustainable, effective agriculture is political stability and an international concept for the fair distribution and pricing of food. The genetic engineering pro and con question is therefore not whether someone is generally for or against genetic engineering and whose arguments weigh more heavily. It is more important to ask whether and in what form people and the environment need genetic engineering - or not. Cloning animals for food Pro More security in the global food supply Desirable traits in a species (more milk in cows) • Preserving endangered animals It is currently believed to be safe to eat cloned animals ● Contra Succession rate is low Cloning animals is expensive ● Cloning animals reduce the genetic diversity of that species (long-term problems) Side effects like diseases and abnormal pregnancies • Unforeseen consequences • Cloning animals could eventually lead to cloning humans • Morally wrong mindset Clones would be made for the population that already suffers from obesity while many remain malnourished animal welfare suffers (factory cloning) No space for animals (Forests would be cut down) Produces Co2 and Methan Pro und Contra - Genetic Engineering Genetic engineering' is the the process of adding or modifying DNA in an organism to bring about a great deal of transformation. Pro Tackling and Defeating Diseases Some of the most deadly and difficult diseases in the world could be wiped out by the use of genetic engineering. There are a number of diseases that humans can suffer from that will probably never be ended unless we actively intervene and genetically engineer the next generation to withstand these problems. For instance, Cystic Fibrosis, a progressive and dangerous disease for which there is no known cure, could be completely cured with the help of selective genetic engineering. Getting Rid of All Illnesses in Young and Unborn Children One of the main benefits of genetic engineering is that it can help cure diseases and illnesses in unborn children. There are many problems that we can detect even before children are born. In the womb, doctors can tell whether your baby is going to suffer from sickle cell anemia, for instance, or from Down's syndrome. However, with genetic engineering, we would no longer have to worry. All children would be able to be born healthy and strong, with no diseases or illnesses present at birth. Genetic engineering can also be used to help people who risk passing on terribly degenerative diseases to their children. Produce New Foods Genetic engineering is not just good for people. With genetic engineering, we can design foods that are better able to withstand harsh temperatures - such as very hot or very cold, for instance - and that are packed full of all the right nutrients that humans and animals need to survive. Faster Growth in Animals and Plants The growth rate in animals and plants can be genetically modified to mature promptly. The crops can be engineered to survive in unfavorable conditions such as high heat or low light or increase crop yield. This gives farmers the scope to expand farming beyond the traditional locations and use the empty lands for other purposes. Animals can also be genetically modified in case of improving production. Dairy cows can be engineered to give more milk and to grow wool faster in sheep. The animals bred for their meat can be engineered to grow bigger and faster. Pest and Disease Resistance The modification through genetic engineering is mainly executed in plants. The genes are being altered in animals or plants to make them perdurable and resistant to pests and diseases. Plants being cultivated can have built-in pest repellents that help reduce the requirement for harmful chemicals and other pesticides that cause damage to the water supply. Cons Perhaps more obvious than the pros of genetic engineering, there are a number of disadvantages to allowing scientists to break down barriers that perhaps are better left untouched. Here are just a few of those disadvantages: Is it Right? When genetic engineering first became possible, peoples' first reactions were to immediately question whether it was 'right.' There are a number of ethical objections. These diseases, after all, exist for a reason and have persisted throughout history for a reason. While we should be fighting against them, we do need at least a few illnesses; otherwise, we would soon become overpopulated. Living longer is already causing social problems in the world today, so to artificially extend everybody's time on Earth might cause even more problems further down the line, problems that we cannot possibly predict. May Lead to Genetic Defects Another real problem with genetic engineering is the question about the safety. Scientists do not yet know absolutely everything about the way that the human body works. How can they possibly understand the consequences of slight changes made at the smallest level? What if we manage to wipe out one disease only to introduce something brand new and even more dangerous? Additionally, if scientists genetically engineer babies still in the womb, there is a very real and present danger that this could lead to complications, including miscarriage (early on), premature birth or even stillbirth, all of which are unthinkable. The success rate of genetic experiments leaves a lot to be desired, after all. Dangerous pathogens Viruses and bacteria adapt to the environment. If these cannot overcome the natural repellent of the GM plant, they can become stronger and more resistant, which has a negative impact on non-GM plants/animals. Negative Side Effects

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Genetics & Biotechnology

Genetics & Biotechnology

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Marie

13 Followers
 

12

Lernzettel

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 Genetic engineering
Direct Manipulation of an organism's genes using biotechnology
Pro's
●
●
GENETICS LERNZETTEL
Helps to prevent / cure il

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Pros und Cons von Genetic Engineering, Biotechnology in agriculture, cloning, designer babies

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Genetic engineering Direct Manipulation of an organism's genes using biotechnology Pro's ● ● GENETICS LERNZETTEL Helps to prevent / cure illnesses Can build a new generation with smarter, stronger and better looking humans Potential to live longer More an new foods Con's ● Eredication of hereditary diseases Life can be saved with organ donors Adaption of plants to climate change Saving extinct species Healthy children Intensified agriculture Health and environmental risks Less individuality ● • Creation of biological weapons Reduction of biodiversity Against natural balance May lead to genetic effects Uncertain side effects Moral problems: human rights Designer babies Irreversible changes in nature Cloning -> creation of genetically identical copies of living matters Therapeutic cloning: The nucleus of a cell is inserted into a fertilized egg whose nucleus has bee removed -> therapy for diseases Reproductive Cloning -> is uses to produce identical twins of animals through genetic manipulation ->researchers remove a cell from an animal that they wish to copy. Then they transfer the Dna of the donor animal cell into an egg cell, that has had its own Dna-containing nucleus removed. Biotechnology in agriculture Genetic engineering tries to breed plants that have some positive characteristics, for example that they should grow under unfavourable conditions, or become more resistant to diseases or pests, or that the plants should produce new ingredients. Pro ● Population and it's demands grows -> need more food More efficient farming Less dependance on pesticides New ingredients ● Higher yield More nutritional value Contra uncontrolled spread, could...

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displace other plants • Impact on humans and animals is uncertain Risk of allergy, other diseases Costs a lot -> investment by companies that can take advantage of poor farmers Violates natural boundaries of reproduction by crossing genes between unrelated specie that would never crossbreed naturally Monocultures lead to construction of natural biodiversity Pro und Contra (in Texten) Pro Development of new medicines and therapies Potential to combat serious diseases, including hereditary diseases. Vaccines, once laboriously produced in chicken embryos, can now in many cases already be produced with biotechnology Better environmental compatibility of production processes Microorganisms work energy-efficiently and cost-effectively, in the smallest possible space, and generally do not produce any problematic waste Targeted plant breeding Genetic engineering methods can be used to adapt crop varieties more effectively and more quickly to the wishes of the market. Contra Resistance development Seed producers do not deny that both weeds and insect pests are developing resistance to genetic modifications of crops. They react to this by developing new GM varieties and new pesticides - against which the weeds and insects in turn develop resistance. In this way, resistances can accumulate in wild organisms, "super weeds" and "super pests" emerge, which also cause problems for conventionally working farmers and gardeners. Dependence on seed monopolists GM seeds enjoy patent protection for many years. Farmers - even in developing countries - have to buy the high-tech seed, including the spraying agent, every year. Once weeds and pests have adapted, the next new development must be purchased. Fazit The benefits of genetic engineering in medicine and biotechnology are obvious: major advances can be expected here that can improve people's lives in ways that would not be possible without genetic engineering. There is hardly any danger from the GMOs used, as long as they do not enter the environment. Green genetic engineering and other releases, however, are interventions in natural ecosystems. No sooner is one problem eliminated than two new ones arise. While this is an inexhaustible goldmine for seed producers, it cannot pass for an answer to the question of feeding a growing world population. Solving such global challenges is neither the task nor the goal of profit-oriented business enterprises. What is needed above all for sustainable, effective agriculture is political stability and an international concept for the fair distribution and pricing of food. The genetic engineering pro and con question is therefore not whether someone is generally for or against genetic engineering and whose arguments weigh more heavily. It is more important to ask whether and in what form people and the environment need genetic engineering - or not. Cloning animals for food Pro More security in the global food supply Desirable traits in a species (more milk in cows) • Preserving endangered animals It is currently believed to be safe to eat cloned animals ● Contra Succession rate is low Cloning animals is expensive ● Cloning animals reduce the genetic diversity of that species (long-term problems) Side effects like diseases and abnormal pregnancies • Unforeseen consequences • Cloning animals could eventually lead to cloning humans • Morally wrong mindset Clones would be made for the population that already suffers from obesity while many remain malnourished animal welfare suffers (factory cloning) No space for animals (Forests would be cut down) Produces Co2 and Methan Pro und Contra - Genetic Engineering Genetic engineering' is the the process of adding or modifying DNA in an organism to bring about a great deal of transformation. Pro Tackling and Defeating Diseases Some of the most deadly and difficult diseases in the world could be wiped out by the use of genetic engineering. There are a number of diseases that humans can suffer from that will probably never be ended unless we actively intervene and genetically engineer the next generation to withstand these problems. For instance, Cystic Fibrosis, a progressive and dangerous disease for which there is no known cure, could be completely cured with the help of selective genetic engineering. Getting Rid of All Illnesses in Young and Unborn Children One of the main benefits of genetic engineering is that it can help cure diseases and illnesses in unborn children. There are many problems that we can detect even before children are born. In the womb, doctors can tell whether your baby is going to suffer from sickle cell anemia, for instance, or from Down's syndrome. However, with genetic engineering, we would no longer have to worry. All children would be able to be born healthy and strong, with no diseases or illnesses present at birth. Genetic engineering can also be used to help people who risk passing on terribly degenerative diseases to their children. Produce New Foods Genetic engineering is not just good for people. With genetic engineering, we can design foods that are better able to withstand harsh temperatures - such as very hot or very cold, for instance - and that are packed full of all the right nutrients that humans and animals need to survive. Faster Growth in Animals and Plants The growth rate in animals and plants can be genetically modified to mature promptly. The crops can be engineered to survive in unfavorable conditions such as high heat or low light or increase crop yield. This gives farmers the scope to expand farming beyond the traditional locations and use the empty lands for other purposes. Animals can also be genetically modified in case of improving production. Dairy cows can be engineered to give more milk and to grow wool faster in sheep. The animals bred for their meat can be engineered to grow bigger and faster. Pest and Disease Resistance The modification through genetic engineering is mainly executed in plants. The genes are being altered in animals or plants to make them perdurable and resistant to pests and diseases. Plants being cultivated can have built-in pest repellents that help reduce the requirement for harmful chemicals and other pesticides that cause damage to the water supply. Cons Perhaps more obvious than the pros of genetic engineering, there are a number of disadvantages to allowing scientists to break down barriers that perhaps are better left untouched. Here are just a few of those disadvantages: Is it Right? When genetic engineering first became possible, peoples' first reactions were to immediately question whether it was 'right.' There are a number of ethical objections. These diseases, after all, exist for a reason and have persisted throughout history for a reason. While we should be fighting against them, we do need at least a few illnesses; otherwise, we would soon become overpopulated. Living longer is already causing social problems in the world today, so to artificially extend everybody's time on Earth might cause even more problems further down the line, problems that we cannot possibly predict. May Lead to Genetic Defects Another real problem with genetic engineering is the question about the safety. Scientists do not yet know absolutely everything about the way that the human body works. How can they possibly understand the consequences of slight changes made at the smallest level? What if we manage to wipe out one disease only to introduce something brand new and even more dangerous? Additionally, if scientists genetically engineer babies still in the womb, there is a very real and present danger that this could lead to complications, including miscarriage (early on), premature birth or even stillbirth, all of which are unthinkable. The success rate of genetic experiments leaves a lot to be desired, after all. Dangerous pathogens Viruses and bacteria adapt to the environment. If these cannot overcome the natural repellent of the GM plant, they can become stronger and more resistant, which has a negative impact on non-GM plants/animals. Negative Side Effects